How To Build Wheels
Good reasons for making your own wheels
Making your own wheels is one of the most satisfying tasks you can master as a classic bike restorer. There are many benefits and possibilities, and you will save a bundle of cash. Checking the wheels of a project bike for restoration is the next thing that you should do after sizing up the frame for rust and alignment. If those wheels are true, all is usually well, although spokes may need re-tightening. If they are a little out of true but basically undamaged, you can true them yourself.
Supposing that you really want the bike but the rims are buckled, or some spokes are broken, or it has a single speed and you want a gear hub? You don't want the expense of buying new wheels. Perhaps you have already cut a nice hub out of another wheel of a different size. Maybe you want to change the rim from steel to aluminium, a worthwhile upgrade. The solution is to build your own wheels.
It's dead easy too: measure the rim and hub and count the holes; put the stats into a spoke length calculator; buy the right size spokes from an online bike shop; put them all in and tighten them up and the job's a good un. Riding on a set of true, sparkling and tight wheels, that you have built yourself with stainless steel spokes, is one of the joys of cycling. The wheels are what other people will look at almost before the paintwork. Although a proper wheel-truing stand can make the process quicker, it is not essential equipment. A set of forks is adequate.
There are some very good sites on the internet to help bicycle wheelbuilders, so on this page I shall not attempt to write another exhaustive account. Instead, I will show you my method and explain some of the nuances of building wheels that I have not seen described elsewhere. Also, I've designed some useful spoking patterns to adapt hubs that have a certain number of holes into rims that have a different number of holes.
Are small wheels easier to build than big wheels?
The wheelbuilding process
The first step is to measure your hub and rim carefully to ensure that you buy the right sizes of spoke. This is critical. You must measure to the nearest millimetre if you possibly can. Spokes that arrive two millimetres too long seem far longer than they should be, and the same (but opposite) is true of spokes two millimetres shorter. I always go to the definitive Wheelpro website here.
Look at the page on measuring rims in particular and do it in exactly the way that Roger tells you. He is rather pedantic but really very good. Surprisingly, you can afford to be less accurate in the hub measurement than the rim measurement. The lengths of spokes produced by Wheelpro depends on the number of spoke crossings. The output gives you a choice of patterns: radial, one cross, two cross, three cross and four cross. Generally, wheels for Moultons have spokes that cross twice while larger wheels cross three times.
The reason for crossing spokes is to allow you to drive the rear wheel, or use a hub brake on the rear or front. Front wheels that have no hub brake may be spoked radially if the hub is a new one of a good quality. It is wrong to think that the more spoke crossings the better. One-cross can be sufficient on the rear of a small wheel, but does not give quite such an interesting pattern as two cross.
Spokes can be bought online in almost any common length from St. John Street Cycles at around 30p each plus p&p. Get stainless spokes; they look much nicer, they don't go dull over time and they are stronger. Once you have spokes, a spoke key, a screwdriver and a bit of light oil in a jar lid, take your rim and hub and you can begin.
Lacing up a wheel
I'm using a small wheel because it fits into the photo without reducing the size of the hub too much. However, this method can be used for any wheel and hub size. Front Dynohubs have keyhole slots for the spokes on the small flange side that makes lacing easier, but you need to put in a steel peg to hold the spoke head until it is tightened. This will be shown later. All the images are expandable, but use your web browser's back button to return to the sequence.
Truing the wheel
The cover below is from Raleigh's wheelbuilding manual for overseas outlets. There are some nice diagrams inside but it is all copyrighted. The wheel stand that the truing craftsman is using is identical to the one that is in my workshop. As you can see, it is a very simple device with no special equipment fitted to it. In fact, a set of forks is quite adequate as long as you have some way of holding a piece of chalk steady that can highlight areas of the rim that need attention. Put another way, a clamped-on piece of wood positioned close to the rim as it is spun round. Hold the chalk against the wood and it will mark high spots on the rim as they pass.
Note almost all front hubs have a width of 100mm, or close to this. An old set of front forks in a vice makes a great front wheel truing stand. For the back wheel, you could modify a second pair of front forks by bending the blades out with a bar, and filing the dropout slots to take a thicker axle. Or just use part of an old frame. Moulton owners have it a little easier as an old pair of rear forks in the vice makes an ideal truing stand.
Now comes the fun part. There are three things that you need to do to the rim in order to finish your wheel:
- Remove the side-to-side wobble
- Remove the high-and-low (radial) variation
- Tighten the spokes up
Put the wheel in your jig and clamp on a piece of wood that comes very close to the outside of the rim but does not touch it. When you spin the wheel, it will be out of true side-to-side and also move in and out relative to the hub. Let the "in" movement be called a low spot and the "out" movement a high spot. Highs and lows are trickier to remove than the side-to-side wobble, so to begin with, work on radial variation. After saying that, if your rim moves more than a few mm side-to-side, you need to get rid of that before you can spot the highs and lows.
Some important points to start with
- Remember to turn nipples: Righty tighty; Leftie loosie
- When you tighten spokes on the right side of the wheel, the rim will move over to the right.
- When you tighten spokes on the left side of the wheel, the rim will move over to the left.
- If you tighten spokes on the left and right at the same time, the rim will be pulled in lower.
- If you loosen spokes on the left and right at the same time, the rim will be spring out higher.
- Use a well-fitting screwdriver in the nipple heads for most of the work. It is much quicker and easier than a spoke key.
- Move on to a spoke key at the end if necessary. Your spokes will probably be gauge 14. The 15 slot in the spoke key is often a snugger fit.
- Spokes that are tighter will have a higher musical pitch when plucked. This should be no surprise to anyone who plays a stringed musical instrument.
- It is helpful to get all the spokes to similar tension quickly, and increase that tension evenly and steadily as the work progresses.
- The wheel is easier to true if you work with the spokes at lower tension. Only increase the spoke tension towards the end.
- The object is to have every single spoke pulling on the rim at very similar tension. No slackers!
- If you are making a dished wheel, all of the spokes on the flatter side (usually the drivetrain side) will be at a higher tension than those on the left hand side.
- Do not tighten or loosen a nipple any more than one turn at a time before moving on to the next. It is a gradual process.
Preparing the wheel for work
Initially, if the rim is making a single rapid wobble over to one side when spun, pluck the spokes on that side to find if there is a tight one. It will have a much higher musical note and may be shorter than the others. If so, loosen it off until the pitch lowers to a similar tone to the others. Go around the wheel loosening spokes in areas where the rim is pulling over to that side. Eventually, you should have a rim that will be fairly true when spun, or drifting left and right more gradually. Plucking the spokes will give a low "dum" sound, because none are resonating.
Start at the valve hole, and give each nipple a complete turn, moving around the wheel until you come back to the valve hole. Pluck the spokes again to see if the pitch has risen. Repeat the single turn spoke tightening, always going completely round the wheel from the valve hole, until you start to hear the musical tone rise in some spokes.
What you want is to even out the tension in the spokes as soon as you can so that although the wheel may not be true, at least there are no spokes doing absolutely nothing. Of course, the initial spoke tension setting you are aiming for is very low- just a "working tension". The musical pitch should be just a bit higher than the "dum" sound.
So, keep going around the wheel but leave those spokes that are already free of slack and just tighten the loose ones. If the wheel is pulling over to one side, slacken the nipples of the spokes on that side and tighten the nipples on the other side, but only a half turn. Hopefully, the rim will stay within a side-to-side variation of 10mm.
Correcting the high and low
Now you have prepared the wheel, it will respond to the nipples in a predictable way. Provided there is not too much side-to-side play, you can now tackle the highs and lows. These are likely to move in and out by up to a few mm initially. It is virtually impossible to correct radial discrepancies when the wheel is tight, but quite easy at the beginning. First, spin the wheel and hold a piece of chalk near the rim, using your wood as a steadying guide. The high spot will be chalked as it passes.
Find the middle of this and screw in the nipple closest to the middle of the high spot two turns, the nipples either side two turns and the next nipples either side one turn. The idea is that tightening spokes evenly on both sides of the wheel will pull the rim in.Note that the amount that you screw the nipple in is the actual amount that the rim itself will be pulled in. So, for example if you turn the nipples two turns, the rim will only move in about 1mm. Spin the wheel to see the effect and repeat the process until the high spot reduces. There may be more than one high spot, in which case you will have to chalk the rim again to mark it and carry out the nipple tightening on the second area.
Mid stage- preparing the wheel for truing
Go around the wheel plucking all the spokes and looking for slackers- there's bound to be a few. Bring them up to the low tension of the other spokes. Now start at the valve hole and tighten all the spokes a half a turn until you get back to the valve hole. Repeat this step. Now pluck them all again and even the tension by tightening lower tension spokes. You should aim to have spokes on both sides of the wheel the same tension, for a wheel that is not dished. Note that if spokes are touching where they cross, the musical tone may not ring properly; pull the spokes apart before plucking in this case. You have not even begun to tackle side-to-side trueness at this stage.
Next, you will do something that seems harsh, but it is imperative. Go around the wheel grasping pairs of adjacent spokes and squeezing them together hard, as hard as you can without hurting your fingers. I generally squeeze all the seven parallel pairs on one side, then do the same on the other side, then squeeze the spokes across the wheel. The idea is to try and stretch the spokes a bit and also to pull the nipples against the rim. A nipple will sink into an alloy rim a little. Also, the spoke "necks" may un-bend slightly and the heads pull more firmly into the hub holes.
When you've done this, pluck all the spokes and note how the pitch has dropped right back close to the "dum" sound. Start at the valve hole, go around tightening each nipple a half turn until you have done all of them and re-test the spokes by plucking. Repeat the tightening process if the pitch still seems very low. Do any slackers more than the others to even the tension.
Correcting side-to-side variation
The main reason that we leave the actual truing to the end is because it is really quite easy to move the wheel to one side or the other. The essential evenness of the spoke tension is important to get right, and you must have this under control before you begin truing. Essentially, the simple rule is to tighten spokes on the left to make the rim go to the left and tighten spokes on the right to make the rim go to the right. You use chalk to mark the spots where the rim trends to the right, then loosen spokes on the right and tighten spokes on the left to correct it.
Note that it is a gradual process. Unlike the radial correction, the sideways movement of the rim is very responsive to nipple adjustment. You should screw the nipples in only half turns at the most. Also, the rim may make a short wobble over to one side or a long wobble, so the number of spokes that are useful in correcting it will vary. Typically it could be five or seven spokes. Don't be afraid to loosen spokes as well as tighten the opposite spokes if the rim is not moving into line.
Up to this stage you should still be able to work with a screwdriver. Sometimes the spokes are on the long side and the ends push the screwdriver out of the slot. Then you have to resort to the spoke key. Think carefully about which way to turn it to get the result you want
How do you know if the wheel is on the centreline or whether you are inadvertently dishing it? In other words, how can you tell where the centreline is? Now, the process I've described above applies to a symmetrical wheel, not a dished wheel, and the thing that keeps it symmetrical is that all the spokes were tested to be at the same tension. When you have reduced the side-to-side variation to less than about 3mm, go back to mid-stage process. Pluck all the spokes in turn, tighten the slackers, raise the tension by half a turn of the nipples, squeeze the spokes, re-tighten. Then, carry out the truing stage again. If the spoke musical tones are all approximately the same, the wheel should be very close to the centreline.
This can be easily checked by marking the position of one rim edge on the wood guide. Take the wheel out of the stand, turn it around so that right becomes left and vice-versa. Put it back in the stand and check the new position of the rim edge. If it lines up as before, you're fine. If not, your wheel does have a minor unintended dish so make another mark on the wood. The correct position of the rim edge will be half way between your two marks.
Supposing that the rim is too far over to the left, start at the valve hole and loosen all the spokes on the left of the wheel by half a turn. When you are back at the valve hole, tighten all the spokes on the right half a turn. Repeat this process until the rim reaches the centre of your two edge marks. In fact, this method is the best way to dish wheels deliberately by any desired amount.
Finishing the wheel
By now, you should be getting the picture that building a wheel involves repeating a small number of tasks that gradually produce a truer and tighter wheel. It sounds more involved in writing than it actually is in practice. It is all a question of diving in and having a go.
Some useful things you pick up after a while are knowing to turn the nipples tighter in the middle of a variation and "feather" the increased tension to the ends of the wobble. Also, when you tighten a spoke, the spokes next to it will become looser. In fact, all the spokes have an effect on other spokes, which is why odd variations appear out of the blue. If you loosen, say, seven spokes next to one another, it does not mean that those seven spokes will all be loose, because other spokes will still be able to pull them tight.
To finish the wheel, you must raise the tension in the spokes fairly high. Start at the valve hole and go around tightening every spoke half a turn, or a whole turn if you are confident. Pluck to check the tensions, even them, correct the trueness and tighten again. Correcting minor trueness errors at this stage usually only means tightening on one side, not loosening. You should repeat this, moving on to the spoke key, until either you get pinging or ticking noises at the nipples or it feels as if the spoke key might slip and damage the nipple. Finally, give the spokes a good squeeze and re-check tension by plucking. By this time, you will find that squeezing does not affect musical pitch. The wheel will be stable and long-lasting in use.